In two recent articles published in Schizophrenia Bulletin, Sharon Hunter, PhD, an associate professor in the CU School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry, and M. Camille Hoffman, MD, MSc, an associate professor in the CU School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, have uncovered a potential link between choline deficiency in Black pregnant women in the United States and increased risk of developmental issues that can evolve into mental illness later in children's lives.
Researchers at IRB Barcelona's Development and Growth Control lab have revealed the mechanisms by which cells enter senescence because of an imbalance in the number of chromosomes. Chromosomal instability is a common trait in most solid tumours, such as carcinoma, and fully understanding its relationship with cancer can help identify new therapeutic targets. The results have been published in the journal Developmental Cell.
By analyzing the genomes of 99 species of vinegar flies and evaluating their chemical odor profiles and sexual behaviors, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology show that sex pheromones and the corresponding olfactory channels in the insect brain evolve rapidly and independently. The new study is a valuable basis for understanding how pheromone production, their perception and processing in the brain, and ultimately the resulting behavior drive the evolution of new species.
Researchers have documented 21 generations of Leonardo Da Vinci's family covering 690 years and identified 14 living male family descendants. The family tree is now longer (21 generations vs. 19 in 2016), broader (5 branches vs. 1), larger (14 living male direct descendants vs. 2), far more detailed and fully documented for the first time. The publication opens a scientific door to next steps in NY-based Leonardo da Vinci DNA Project.
Newborn mice lacking YAP1 gene are born without bile ducts. Curiously, they don't die in utero and remain physically active, if small and yellow-tinted.
A study in PNAS led by Washington University in St. Louis finds that dragonfly males have consistently evolved less breeding coloration in regions with hotter climates. The research reveals that mating-related traits can be just as important to how organisms adapt to their climates as survival-related traits.
Many fish species evolved parts of their fins into sharp, spiny, needle-like elements -- called fin spines -- that function to protect the fish against predators. Such spines have evolved independently in different lineages and are considered evolutionary drivers of fish diversity. In a study published in PNAS a research team based at the University of Konstanz now shows how fin spines arise from soft fin rays and how they could emerge independently in multiple fish groups.
Maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has often been linked to adverse effects on the health of the newborn. However, there are very few studies on the subject. A study conducted at the UPV/EHU has just concluded in a paper published in the journal Environmental Research that the stages most sensitive to air pollution are the early and late months of pregnancy.
Kyushu University researchers found that the main gene that causes Rett syndrome, MeCP2, controls the differentiation pattern of neural stem cells through the microRNA miR-199a. Dysfunction in MeCP2 or miR-199a cause neural stem cells to produce more astrocytes than neurons. Furthermore, the researchers found that miR-199a mediates the production of Smad1, a downstream transcription factor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling.
A year after University at Buffalo scientists demonstrated that it was possible to produce millions of mature human cells in a mouse embryo, they have published a detailed description of the method so that other laboratories can do it, too.