During cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and separated so that one copy of each chromosome is inherited by each of the two emerging daughter cells. Correct distribution of chromosomes requires high accuracy and defects in this process can cause aberrant distribution of chromosomes and facilitate cancer development. By analyzing the structure of the protein responsible for chromosome separation, a team led by UNIGE has shed light on the mechanisms controlling this essential player in cell division.
The in-house development of a novel SARS-CoV-2 test, creation of the Molecular Diagnostics Lab at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, and their importance to public health are chronicled in a new article in Nature Communications.
Scientists from the IKBFU with colleagues obtained calcium chelidonate via a semisynthesis. This substance accelerates the transformation of stem cells into osteoblasts - its use is promising as a treatment for bone diseases. A plant, Saussurea controversa, used in medicine since ancient times, served as a source for synthesis.
Certain regions of the SARS-CoV-2 genome might be a suitable target for future drugs. This is what researchers at Goethe University, together with their collaborators in the international COVID-19-NMR consortium, have now discovered. With the help of dedicated substance libraries, they have identified several small molecules that bind to certain areas of the SARS-CoV-2 genome that are almost never altered by mutations.
Researchers in the BOTTLE Consortium, including from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Portsmouth, have identified using enzymes as a more sustainable approach for recycling polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a common plastic in single-use beverage bottles, clothing, and food packaging that are becoming increasingly relevant in addressing the environmental challenge of plastic pollution. An analysis shows enzyme-recycled PET has potential improvement over conventional, fossil-based methods of PET production across a broad spectrum of energy, carbon, and socioeconomic impacts.
In the largest study of its kind, an investigation by UC San Francisco has found no evidence that moderate coffee consumption can cause cardiac arrhythmia.
An international team of researchers led by Kumamoto and Tokyo Universities (Japan) have shown that the L452R mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which is common to two variants (Epsilon and Delta), is involved in cellular immunity evasion via the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A24, and enhances viral infectivity. HLA-A24 is one of the most prominent HLA-class I alleles, especially in East/Southeast Asian populations, which might make them particularly vulnerable to variants with the mutation.
Freiburg researchers discover a signaling protein that controls the assembly of human cellular "power plants"
Researchers from The University of Texas at Austin have found a low-cost way to solve one half of the water-splitting equation to produce hydrogen as clean energy -- using sunlight to efficiently split off oxygen molecules from water. The finding represents a step forward toward greater adoption of hydrogen as a key part of our energy infrastructure.
Researchers at the RIKEN, Japan have discovered that acetate, a major metabolite produced by some intestinal bacteria, is involved in regulating other intestinal bacteria. Experiments specifically showed that acetate could trigger an immune response against potentially harmful bacteria. These discoveries will lead to the development of new ways to regulate the balance of intestinal bacteria.