A scientific team has shown that the release of neurotransmitters in the brain is impaired in patients with schizophrenia who have a rare, single-gene mutation known to predispose people to a range of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Neural plasticity depends on a reliable delivery team of Kinesin protein KIF5C to carry goods like RNA from cell body to synapse, a new study finds.
Crenarchaeol is a large, closed-loop lipid that is present in the membranes of ammonium-oxidizing archaea. In comparison to other archaeal membrane lipids, crenarchaeol is very complex and, so far, attempts to confirm its structure by synthesizing the entire molecule have been unsuccessful. Organic chemists from the University of Groningen have taken up this challenge and discovered that the proposed structure for the molecule was largely, but not entirely, correct.
In addition to chemical factors, mechanical influences play an important role in the natural growth of human organs such as kidneys, lungs and mammary glands - but also in the development of tumors. Now a research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has investigated the process in detail using organoids, three-dimensional model systems of such organs which are produced in the laboratory.
Researchers have now discovered a new set of signals that control the production of goblet cells in the lung.
The team led by Alejo Efeyan, head of the Metabolism and Cell Signalling Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), has discovered that genetic inhibition of the RagC protein blocks the activation of B lymphocytes and delays the onset of follicular lymphomas without side effects. The study, which was carried out in animal models, was published this week in the journal Cell Reports.
Researchers from Osaka University have found that protein phosphatase 1 binds to RIF1 at double-strand DNA breaks to promote repair by the non-homologous end joining pathway instead of the homologous recombination pathway. Given the key role of double-strand break repair in cancers such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, the insight gained from this study could help develop novel therapeutic options in the future.
UC San Diego researchers discovered that immunotoxins targeting the protein mesothelin prevent liver cells from producing collagen, a precursor to fibrosis and cirrhosis, in mouse models of human disease.
Two recently published innovations by University of Florida researchers at the Department of Energy's Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (CABBI) demonstrated the first successful precision breeding of sugarcane by using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. The work gives researchers a targeted and efficient way to develop new sugarcane varieties with higher productivity, herbicide resistance, or more oil production - key to CABBI's goals to produce fuels and chemicals from plants instead of petroleum.
Researchers deloped a new genetic circuit called the Equalizer that leads to uniform gene expression.