Researchers from Osaka University have found that the attachment of a ubiquitin molecule to a protein called PCNA at the lysine 107 position causes gross chromosomal rearrangements. This lysine is located where two PCNA molecules interact, and the ubiquitin attachment to it may change the ring structure they form. The ubiquitin attachment occurs through the action of Rad8 (a ubiquitin ligase) and Mms2-Ubc4 (a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme). This implies that inhibiting the human equivalent of this ubiquitination could prevent cancer.
Safe and effective vaccines offer hope for an end to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the possible emergence of vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as novel coronaviruses, make finding treatments that work against all coronaviruses as important as ever. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research have analyzed viral proteins across 27 coronavirus species and thousands of samples from COVID-19 patients, identifying highly conserved sequences that could make the best drug targets.
Researchers from HSE University have discovered nucleotide sequences characteristic of microRNA isoforms (microRNAs with errors). The discovery will help predict errors in microRNA behaviour and create drugs that can detect targets (such as viruses) more effectively. The results of the study have been published in the RNA Biology journal.
The frequency of misattributed paternity, where the assumed father is not the biological father, is low and decreasing in Sweden, according to an analysis published in the Journal of Internal Medicine of 1.95 million family units with children born mainly between 1950 and 1990.
Researchers at RIKEN, Japan have succeeded in creating the first genetically engineered marsupial. This study will contribute to deciphering the genetic background of unique characteristics observed only in marsupials.
During cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and separated so that one copy of each chromosome is inherited by each of the two emerging daughter cells. Correct distribution of chromosomes requires high accuracy and defects in this process can cause aberrant distribution of chromosomes and facilitate cancer development. By analyzing the structure of the protein responsible for chromosome separation, a team led by UNIGE has shed light on the mechanisms controlling this essential player in cell division.
High altitude environments are one of the most demanding habitats in which humans have ever lived. However, several populations worldwide have successfully settled at high altitude for thousands of years and even display physical traits to counteract hypoxic conditions. A new study showed that Papua New Guinean highlanders may also show similar adaptive traits as a result of living at altitude for 20,000 years.
The in-house development of a novel SARS-CoV-2 test, creation of the Molecular Diagnostics Lab at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, and their importance to public health are chronicled in a new article in Nature Communications.
Researchers revealed new insights into how acute myeloid leukemia (AML) develops and progresses, according to a study published in Molecular Cell on July 20, 2021.
Every spring, the Daylight Saving Time shift robs people of an hour of sleep - and a new study shows that DNA plays a role in how much the time change affects individuals. People whose genetic profile makes them more likely to be "early birds" can adjust to the time change in a few days. But those who tend to be "night owls" could take more than a week to get back on track.