Even though KRAS4B is the dominant form in cancer, the KRAS4A mutant is also oncogenic, and it is even more active. In the words of the authors, "KRAS4AG12V alone, in the absence of KRAS4B, can induce lung cancer and metastasis in 20 percent of individuals. Our results suggest that for therapies to be effective, the two KRAS isoforms should be targeted."
Researchers at IRB Barcelona unveil a pathway that determines the fate of cells in response to stress conditions and identify an important mechanism that recovers cell balance. The results have been published in the journal PNAS.
A coronavirus related to the virus that causes Covid-19 in humans has been found in UK horseshoe bats. However, there is no evidence that this novel virus has been transmitted to humans, or that it could in future, unless it mutates.
Proteins are essential for body growth and muscle building. However, protein metabolism varies depending on the body's internal biological clock. Therefore, it is important to know how distribution of protein intake over the day affects muscles. Researchers from Japan have now found that consumption of proteins at breakfast increases muscle size and function in mice and humans, shedding light on the concept of 'Chrononutrition' that deals with the timing of diets to ensure organ health.
Researchers from TMDU and Osaka University have found that a protein called FCHSD1 is involved in the development of emphysema, which is destruction of the tiny air sacs in the lungs, and is a component of chronic pulmonary respiratory disease that causes illness and death worldwide. Mice deficient in FCHSD1 showed less lung damage, inflammation, and cell death. The team were able to uncover the mechanism by which FCHSD1 acts to promote emphysema, which could lead to the development of new treatments.
A recently developed method by Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) and University of California, Riverside provides new insights into cancer biology by allowing researchers to show how fatty acids are absorbed by single cells.
New research from the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan has identified a direct link between the SUV39h2 gene and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A human variant of the SUV39H2 gene led researchers to examine its absence in mice. Published in Molecular Psychiatry, the study found that when absent, adult mice exhibited cognitive inflexibility similar to what occurs in autism, and embryonic mice showed misregulated expression of genes related to brain development.
A UC San Francisco study has found that the antibiotic azithromycin was no more effective than a placebo in preventing symptoms of COVID-19 among non-hospitalized patients, and may increase their chance of hospitalization, despite widespread prescription of the antibiotic for the disease.
Scientists reveal a key role for interspecific gene flow in the continent-wide adaptive radiation of the Heliconius butterflies.
All cancers fall into just two categories, according to new research from scientists at Sinai Health, in findings that could provide a new strategy for treating the most aggressive and untreatable forms of the disease. In new research out this month in Cancer Cell, scientists at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute (LTRI) divide all cancers into two groups, based on the presence or absence of a protein called the Yes-associated protein, or YAP.