Fig 2. Number of studies included in four independent reviews published in 2016-2018, presented by carnivore family and continent. Canids include gray wolves and subspecies (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), dingoes (Canis dingo), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Felids include Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), cougars (Puma concolor), lions (Panthera leo), jaguars (Panthera onca), leopards (Panthera pardus), snow leopards (Panthera uncia), caracals (Caracal caracal), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Hyaenids includes spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Mustelids feature wolverines (Gulo gulo). Ursids include American black bears (Ursus americanus), Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus), brown or grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Smaller carnivores (e.g. red foxes, hyenas, caracals) are included in studies that investigated multiple carnivore species of varying sizes.