The video shows the formation and evolution of the first stars and galaxies in a virtual universe similar to our own. The simulation begins just before cosmic dawn, when the universe is devoid of starlight, and runs to the epoch 550 million years after the Big Bang when the six galaxies analysed by Dr Laporte and colleagues are being observed.
The age of the universe in millions of years is shown in the upper left. The inset focuses on the evolution of a galaxy similar to those in the recent observational study. Purple regions display the filamentary distribution of gas, composed mostly of hydrogen. White regions represent starlight and the yellow regions depict energetic radiation from the most massive stars which is capable of ionising the surrounding hydrogen gas. As massive stars rapidly reach the end of their lifetime, they erupt in violent supernova explosions which expel the surrounding gas enabling the escape of this energetic radiation. Galaxies such as the one shown continually accrete material from nearby smaller systems and quickly assemble to form the more substantial galaxies observed by the Hubble Space Telescope at later times.
Credit: Dr Harley Katz, Beecroft Fellow, Department of Physics, University of Oxford